Monthly Archives - December 2018

Cyclothymic Disorder

    Cyclothymic disorder, a milder form of bipolar disorder, are episodes of hypomanic symptoms — elevated mood and euphoria — and depressive symptoms that prolong for at least two years. Medical professionals do not classify this disorder as a full-blown hypomanic or depressive episode because the number, severity, and duration of the symptoms is less.  

How Do Doctors Diagnose Cyclothymic Disorder?

  For doctors to diagnose a person with cyclothymic disorder, the person should have experienced hypomanic and depressive symptoms at different times in their life for at least two years. Cyclothymic disorder begins at adolescence or early adulthood with a 15% to 50% probability of the person to develop bipolar I or II disorder.   However, the risk of a person developing bipolar I because they suffered from cyclothymic disorder is still less, as most people tend to recover and do not experience any hypomanic and depressive symptoms in the future. In both males and females, cyclothymic disorder is common.  

The Symptoms of Cyclothymic Disorder

  For children and adolescents, cyclothymic disorder symptoms last for one year, but generally, the person should exhibit its symptoms for at least two years for doctors to diagnose them with it. The symptoms of cyclothymic disorder and hypomanic disorder are the same with the only difference being the duration they last.   The symptoms of cyclothymic disorder do not last long and are less severe. Since cyclothymic disorder’s symptoms are a combination of both hypomanic and depressive disorder, it is important to look at both before diagnosing a person with cyclothymic disorder.  

Symptoms of Hypomanic Disorder

  • A lasting duration of behavior that is different from usual
  • Abuse of drugs, sleeping medications, and alcohol
  • Being more talkative than usual or feeling pressure to continue talking
  • Denial that something is wrong
  • Distractibility, inability to concentrate
  • Excessively euphoric mood
  • Impractical beliefs in their abilities and powers
  • Increased energy, anxiety, and activity
  • Increased sex drive
  • Irritability
  • Poor judgment
  • Provocative, invasive, or aggressive behavior
  • Racing thoughts and speech, jumping from one idea to another
  • Sleeping less
  • Impulsive spending behavior

Symptoms of Depressive Disorder

  • Unable to concentrate, remember, and decide
  • Excessive sleepiness or unable to sleep
  • Fatigue or lethargy
  • Feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness and, or, guilt
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss OR overeating and weight gain
  • Loss of self-esteem
  • Persistent sadness
  • Persistent thoughts of death
  • Withdrawal from activities that were once enjoyed
  • Withdrawal from friends
  The treatment for cyclothymia disorder is similar to the treatment of bipolar I and II disorder and the duration of the treatment depends on the severity of the symptoms.    


    Delirium, classified as an abrupt change in the brain, causes emotional disruption and mental confusion. It makes it difficult for a person diagnosed with delirium to think, recall, sleep, stay attentive, and more. However, delirium can be temporary and treatable.  

The Three Types of Delirium

  Medical professionals categorize delirium by its cause, severity, and characteristics.
  • Delirium Tremens – The severest form of the condition experienced by individuals going through alcohol withdrawal.
  • Hyperactive Delirium – This form is classified as being extremely uncooperative and alert.
  • Hypoactive Delirium – This form is the most common out of the two and in it, individuals tend to sleep a lot and become careless and disorganized with performing daily tasks such as missing meals and appointments.
Some individuals may experience a combination of both hyperactive delirium and hypoactive delirium, switching between the two.  

Causes of Delirium

  Inflammation and infection can hinder the function of the brain, resulting in the person developing delirium. Certain medications to treat illnesses can also cause delirium. Drug abuse is another cause of delirium.   Eating or drinking poisonous substances and alcohol withdrawal are responsible as well for a person developing delirium. Moreover, breathing difficulties or certain conditions that cut oxygen to the brain can drastically modify the function of the brain, resulting in severe mental confusion.  

People at Risk for Delirium

  People who are over the age of 65 or have developed several health conditions are at a higher risk to develop delirium. Other types of people who are at risk for delirium include:
  • Certain medications such as sleeping pills, blood pressure medications, sedatives, and painkillers
  • Contributing Factors that Because Delirium Include
  • Infection such as urinary tract infection
  • Lack of sleep
  • People who are under severe emotional stress
  • People who experienced conditions that damaged the brain
  • People withdrawing from drinking alcohol and drugs
  • Poor diet and nutrition
  • Surgery patients

Symptoms of Delirium

  • Unclear speech and thoughts
  • Sleeping poorly or feeling sleepy
  • Decreased short-term memory
  • Loss of muscle control
The doctor will diagnose a person with delirium if their behavior changes during the day, especially if they are hospitalized, they have a difficult time paying attention or making sense of what others say, and they cannot form a coherent sentence. The doctor will perform a few tests to check the for imbalances, view their family history, and see the symptoms before they diagnose someone with delirium.  

Treatment for Delirium:

  Delirium is often treated with antipsychotic such as Haloperidol.